Men of GodTwo Short Catechisms by John Owen
Ques. Whence is all truth concerning God and ourselves to be learned?
Ans. From the holy Scripture, the Word of God. — Chapter 1 of the
Q. What do the Scriptures teach that God is?
A. An eternal, infinite, most holy Spirit, giving being to all things, and
doing with them whatsoever he pleaseth. — Chapter 2.
Q. Is there but one God?
A. One only, in respect of his essence and being, but one in three distinct
persons, of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. — Chapter 3.
Q. What else is held forth in the Word concerning God, that we ought to
A. His decrees, and his works. — Chapter 4.
Q. What are the decrees of God concerning us?
A. His eternal purposes, of saving some by Jesus Christ, for the praise of
his glory, and of condemning others for their sins. — Chapter 5.
Q. What are the works of God?
A. Acts or doings of his power, whereby he createth, sustaineth, and
governeth all things. — Chapter 6.
Q. What is required from us towards Almighty God?
A. Holy and spiritual obedience, according to his law given unto us —
Q. Are we able to do this of ourselves?
A. No, in no wise, being by nature unto every good work reprobate. —
Q. How came we into this estate, being at the first created in the image of
God, in righteousness and innocency?
A. By the fall of our first parents, breaking the covenant of God, losing his
grace, and deserving his curse. — Chapter 8.
Q. By what way may we be delivered from this miserable estate?
A. Only by Jesus Christ. — Chapter 9.
Q. What is Jesus Christ?
A. God and man united in one person, to be a mediator between God and
man. — Chap 10.
Q. What is he unto us?
A. A King, a Priest, and a Prophet. — Chapter 11.
Q. Wherein does he exercise his kingly power towards us?
A. In converting us unto God by his Spirit, subduing us unto his
obedience, and ruling in us by his grace. — Chapter 12.
Q. In what does the exercise of his priestly office for us chiefly consist?
A. In offering up himself an acceptable sacrifice on the cross, so satisfying
the justice of God for our sins, removing his curse from our persons, and
bringing us unto him. — Chapter 13.
Q. Wherein does Christ exercise his prophetical office towards us?
A. In revealing to our hearts, from the bosom of his Father, the way and
truth whereby we must come unto him. — Chapter 13.
Q. In what condition does Jesus Christ exercise these offices?
A. He did in a low estate of humiliation on earth, but now in a glorious
estate of exaltation in heaven. — Chapter 14.
Q. For whose sake does Christ perform all these?
A. Only for his elect. — Chapter 15.8
Q. What is the church of Christ?
A. The universal company of God’s elect, called to the adoption of
children. — Chapter 16.
Q. How come we to be members of this church?
A. By a lively faith. — Chapter 17.
Q. What is a lively faith?
A. An assured resting of the soul upon God’s promises of mercy in Jesus
Christ, for pardon of sins here and glory hereafter. — Chapter 18.
Q. How come we to have this faith?
A. By the effectual working of the Spirit of God in our hearts, freely
calling us from the state of nature to the state of grace. — Chapter 18.
Q. Are we accounted righteous for our faith?
A. No, but only for the righteousness of Christ, freely imputed unto us,
and laid hold of by faith. — Chapter 19.
Q. 1. Is there no more required of us but faith only?
A. Yes; repentance also, and holiness. — Chapter 20.
Q. 2. What is repentance?
A. A forsaking of all sin, with godly sorrow for what we have committed.
— Chapter 20.
Q. 3. What is that holiness which is required of us?
A. Universal obedience to the will of God revealed unto us. — Chapter 20.
Q. What are the privileges of believers?
A. First, union with Christ; secondly, adoption of children; thirdly,
communion of saints; fourthly, right to the seals of the new covenant;
fifthly, Christian liberty; sixthly, resurrection of the body to life eternal.
— Chapter 21.9
Q. 1. What are the sacraments, or seals, of the new covenant?
A. Visible seals of God’s spiritual promises, made unto us in the blood of
Jesus Christ. — Chapter 22.
Q. 2. Which be they?
A. Baptism and the Lord’s supper.
Q. What is baptism?
A. A holy ordinance, whereby, being sprinkled with water according to
Christ’s institution, we are by his grace made children of God, and have
the promises of the covenant sealed unto us. — Chapter 23.
Q. What is the Lord’s supper?
A. A holy ordinance of Christ, appointed to communicate unto believers
his body and blood spiritually, being represented by bread and wine,
blessed, broken, poured out, and received of them. — Chapter 24.
Q. Who have a right unto this sacrament?
A. They only who have an interest in Jesus Christ by faith. — Chapter
Q. What is the communion of saints?
A. A holy conjunction between all God’s people, partakers of the same
Spirit, and members of the same mystical body. — Chapter 25.
Q. What is the end of all this dispensation?
A. The glory of God in our salvation.
THE GREATER CATECHISM:
Chap. 1 – Of The Scripture.
Ques. 1. What is Christian religion?
The only way John 14: 5, 6, 17: 3; Acts 4:
Every one out of this way
of knowing God aright, The life of religion is in
and living unto him. Col. 1: 10; 2 Cor. 5: 15;
Gal. 2: 19, 20.
Q. 2. Whence is it to be learned?
From the holy Scripture only. Isa. 8: 20; John 5: 39.
Popish traditions are false
lights, leading from God.
Q. 3. What is the Scripture?
The books of the Old Isa. 8: 20; Rom. 3: 2.
and New Testament, Rev. 22: 19, 20.
The authority of the
Scripture dependeth not on
the authority of the church,
as the Papists blaspheme.
All human inventions
unnecessary helps in the
worship of God.
The word thereof is the sole
directory for faith, worship,
given by inspiration from 2 Tim. 3: 16, 17; Ps. 19: 7,
God, containing all things 8; Jer. 7: 13; John 20: 31.
necessary to be believed and
done, that God may be
worshipped and our souls
Q. 4. How know you them to be the word of God?
By the testimony of God’s Matt. 16: 17; John 16: 13; 1
Spirit, Thess. 2: 13; 1 John 2: 20,
This alone persuadeth and
inwardly convinceth the heart
of the divine verity of the
Scripture; other motives,
also, there are from without,
and unanswerable arguments to
prove the truth of them, as,
– 1. Their antiquity; 2.
Preservation from fury; 3.
Prophecies in them; 4. The
holiness and majesty of their
doctrine agreeable to the
nature of God; 5. Miracles;
6. The testimony of the
church of all ages; 7. The
blood of innumerable martyrs,
working faith in my heart to Luke 24: 32; 1 Cor. 2: 14;
close with that heavenly Heb. 4: 12; 2 Pet. 1: 19.
majesty, and clear divine
truth, that shineth in them.
Chap. 2 – Of God.
Q. 1. What do the Scriptures teach concerning God?
First, what he is, or his Exod. 3: 14; Isa. 45: 6; Heb.
nature; secondly, what he 1: 1-3, 11: 6.
does, or his works.
Q. 2. What is God in himself?
An Eternal, Deut. 33:27; Isa. 57:15; Rev.
infinite, 1 Kings 8: 27; Ps. 139: 2-5,
The perfection of God’s being
is known of us chiefly by
removing all imperfections.
Hence the abominable vanity
of idolaters, and of the
blasphemous Papists, that
incomprehensible Exod. 33: 20; 1 Tim. 6: 16.
Let us prostrate ourselves in
holy adoration of that which
we cannot comprehend.
Spirit, John 4:24.
giving being to all things, Gen. 1: 1; Ps. 115: 3, 135:
and doing with them 6; Isa. 46: 10; John 5: 17;
whatsoever he pleaseth. Heb. 1: 2.
Q. 3. Do we here know God as he is?
No, his glorious being is not Exod. 33: 23; 1 Cor. 13: 12.
of us, in this life, to be
Q. 4. Whereby is God chiefly made known unto us in the Word?
First, by his names; Exod. 3: 14, 6: 3; Ps. 83:
secondly, by his attributes Exod. 34: 6,7; Matt. 5: 48.
Q. 5. What are the names of God?
Glorious titles, which he has Exod. 3: 14, 15, 6: 3, 34: 6,
given himself, to hold forth 7; Gen. 17: 1.
his excellencies unto us, The divers names of God
with some perfections whereby signify one and the same
he will reveal himself. thing, but under diverse
notions in respect of our
Q. 6. What are the attributes of God?
His infinite perfections in Rev. 4: 8-11.
being and working.
Q. 7. What are the chief attributes of his being?
Eternity, Deut. 33: 27; Ps. 93: 2; Isa.
57: 15; Rev. 1: 11.
infiniteness, l Kings 8: 27; Ps. 139: 1-4,
Simplicity or purity, Exod. 3: 14.
Some of these attributes
belong so unto God, as that
they are in no sort to be
ascribed to any else, – as
infiniteness, eternity, &c.
Others are after a sort
attributed to some of his
creatures, in that he
communicates unto them some
of the effects of them in
himself; – as life, goodness,
The first of these are
motives to humble adoration,
fear, self-abhorrency; the
other, to faith, hope, love,
and confidence, through Jesus
all-sufficiency, Gen. 17: l; Ps. 135: 4-6.
Perfectness, Job 11: 7-9; Rom. 11: 33-36.
immutability, Mal. 3: 6; James 1: 17.
life, Judges viii 19; 1 Sam. 25:
34; 2 Kings iii 14; Ezek. 14:
16, 16: 48; Matt. 16: 16;
Acts 14: 15; 1 Thess. 1: 9.
will, Dan. 4: 35; Isa. 46: 10; Eph.
1: 5, 11; James 1: 18.
and understanding. Ps. 7: 8, 139: 2, 147: 4;
Jer. 11: 20; Heb. 4: 13.
Q. 8. What are the attributes which usually are ascribed to him in
his works, or the acts of his will?
Goodness, Ps. 119: 68; Matt. 19: 17.
power, Exod. 15: 11; Ps. 62: 11;
Rev. 19: 1.
Nothing is to be ascribed
unto God, nor imagined of
him, but what is exactly
agreeable to those his
These last are no less
essential unto God than the
former – only we thus
distinguish them, because
these are chiefly seen in his
justice, Zeph. 3: 5; Ps. 11: 7; Jer.
12: l; Rom. 1: 32.
mercy, Ps. 130: 7; Rom. 9: 15; Eph.
holiness, Exod. 15: 11; Josh. 24: 19.
wisdom, Hab. 1: 13; Rev. 4: 8.
and the like; which he Rom. 11: 33, 16: 27.
delighteth to exercise
towards his creatures, for
the praise of his glory.
Chap. 3 – Of the Holy Trinity.
Q. 1. Is there but one God to whom these properties do belong?
One only, in respect of his Deut. 6: 4; Matt. 19: 17; Eph
essence and being, 4: 5, 6.
but one in three distinct Gen. 1: 26; 1 John 5: 7;
persons, of Father, Son, and Matt. 28: 19.
Q. 2. What mean you by person?
A distinct manner of John 5: 17; Heb. 1: 3.
subsistence or being, This is that mysterious ark
distinguished from the other that must not be pried into,
persons by its own nor the least tittle spoken
properties. about it, wherein plain
Scripture goes not before.
To deny the Deity of any one
person, is in effect to deny
the whole Godhead for
whosoever has not the Son,
has not the Father.
This only doctrine remained
undefiled in the Papacy.
Q. 3. What is the distinguishing property of the person of the
To be of himself only the John 5: 26, 27; Eph. 1: 3.
fountain of the Godhead.
Q. 4. What is the property of the Son?
To be begotten of his Father Ps. 2: 7; John 1: 14, 3: 16.
Q. 5. What of the Holy ghost?
To proceed from the Father John 14: 17, 16: 14, 15: 26,
and the Son. 20: 22.
Q. 6. Are these three one?
One every way, in nature, John 10: 30; Rom. 3: 30.
will, and essential
distinguished only in their John 15: 26; 1 John 5: 7.
personal manner of
Q. 7. Can we conceive these things as they are in themselves?
Neither we 1 Tim. 6: 16.
nor yet the angels of heaven Isa. 6: 2, 3.
are at all able to dive into We must labour to make out
these secrets, as they are comfort from the proper work
internally God; of every person towards us.
but in respect of the outward Col. 1: 11-14.
dispensation of themselves to
us by creation, redemption,
and sanctification, a
knowledge may be attained of
these things, saving and
Chap. 4. – Of the Works of God; and, First, of those that are
Internal and Immanent.
Q. 1. What do the Scriptures teach concerning the works of God?
That they are of two sorts; Acts 15: 18; Prov. 16: 4.
first, internal, in his The purposes and decrees of
counsel, decrees, and God, so far as by him
purposes, towards his revealed, are objects of our
creatures; secondly, faith, and full of comfort.
external, in his works over
and about them, to the praise
of his own glory.
Q. 2. What are the decrees of God?
Eternal, Mic. 5: 2; Eph. 3: 9-11; Acts
unchangeable Isa. 14: 24, 46: 10; Rom. 9:
11; 2 Tim. 2: 19.
purposes of his will, Farther reasons of Gods
concerning the being and decrees than his own will,
well-being of his creatures. not to be inquired after.
The changes in the scripture
ascribed unto God are only in
the outward dispensations and
works, variously tending to
one infallible event, by him
The Armenians’ blasphemy, in
saying God sometimes fails of
Q. 3. Concerning which of his creatures chiefly are his decrees to
Angels and men, for whom 1 Tim. 5: 21; Jude 6.
other things were ordained.
Q. 4. What are the decrees of God concerning men?
Election and reprobation. Rom. 9: 11-13.
Q. 5. What is the decree of election?
The eternal, Eph. 1: 4; Acts 13: 48; Rom.
8: 29, 30.
free, Matt. 11: 26.
immutable purpose of God, 2 Tim. 2: 19.
The decree of election is the
fountain of all spiritual
graces, for they are bestowed
only on the elect.
In nothing does natural
corruption more exalt itself
against God, than in opposing
the freedom of his grace in
his eternal decrees.
whereby in Jesus Christ he Eph 1: 4, 5; Matt. 22: 14.
chooseth unto himself whom he
out of whole mankind, Rom. 9: 18-21.
determining to bestow upon John 6: 37, 17: 6, 9, 11, 24.
them, for his sake, grace From the execration of these
here, and everlasting decrees flows that variety
happiness hereafter, for the and difference we see in the
praise of his glory, by the dispensation of the means Of
way of mercy. grace, – God sending the
Gospel where he has a remnant
according to election.
Q. 6. Doth any thing in us move the Lord thus to choose us from
No, in no wise; we are in the Rom. 9: 11, 12; Matt. 11: 25;
same lump with others 1 Cor. 4: 7; 2 Tim. 1: 9.
rejected when separated by
his undeserved grace.
Q. 7. What is the decree of reprobation?
The eternal purpose of God to Rom. 9: 11, 12, 21, 22; Prov.
suffer many to sin, leave 16: 4; Matt. 11: 25, 26; 2
them in their sin, and not Pet. 2: 12; Jude 4.
giving them to Christ, to
punish them for their sin.
Chap. 5. – Of the Works of God that outwardly are of Him.
Q. 1. What are the works of God that outwardly respect his
First, of creation; secondly, Ps. 33: 9; Heb. 1: 2, 3.
of actual providence. The very outward works of God
are sufficient to convince
men of his eternal power and
Godhead, and to leave them
inexcusable, if they serve
Q. 2. What is the work of creation?
An act or work of God’s Gen. 1: l; Exod. 20: 11;
almighty power, whereby of Prov. 16: 4.
nothing, in six days, he
created heaven, earth, and
the sea, with all things in
Q. 3. Wherefore did God make man?
For his own glory in his Gen. 1: 26, 27, 2: 16, 17;
service and obedience. Rom. 9: 23.
The glory of God is to be
preferred above our own
either being or well-being,
as the supreme end of then.
The approaching unto God in
his service is the chief
exaltation of one nature
above the beasts that perish.
Q. 4. Was man able to yield the service and worship that God
required of him?
Yea, to the uttermost, being Gen. 1: 26; Eccles. 7: 29;
created upright in the image Eph. 4: 24; Col. 3: 10.
of God, in purity, innocence,
righteousness, and holiness.
Q. 5. What was the rule whereby man was at first to be directed in
The moral or eternal law of Gen. 2: 15-17; Rom. 2: 14,
God, implanted in his nature 15; Eph. 4: 24.
and written in his heart by God never allowed, from the
creation, being the tenor of beginning, that the will of
the covenant between God and the creature should be the
him, sacramentally typified measure of his worship nod
by the tree of knowledge of honour.
good and evil.
Q. 6. Do we stand in the same covenant still, and have we the same
power to yield obedience unto God?
No; the covenant was broken Gen. 3: 16-18; Gal. 3: 10,11,
by the sin of Adam, with whom 21; Heb. 7: 19, 8: 13.
it was made, Though we have all lost our
right unto the promise of the
first covenant, yet all not
restored by Christ are under
the commination and curse
our nature corrupted, Job 14: 4; Ps. 51: 5.
and all power to do good Gen. 6: 5; Jer. 13: 23.
Chap. 6. – Of God’s actual Providence.
Q. 1. What is God’s actual providence?
The effectual working of his Exod. 4: 11; Job 5: 10-12, 9:
power, and almighty act of 5, 6; Ps. 147: 4; Prov. 15:
his will, whereby he 3; Isa. 45: 6, 7; John 5: 17;
sustaineth, governeth, and Acts 17: 28; Heb. 1: 3.
disposeth of all things, men To this providence is to be
and their actions, to the ascribed all the good we do
ends which he has ordained enjoy, and all the
for them. afflictions we undergo.
Fortune, chance, and the
like, are names without
things, scarce fit to be used
among Christians, seeing
Providence certainly ruleth
all to appointed ends.
No free-will in man exempted
either from the eternal
decree or the overruling
providence of God.
Q.2. How is this providence exercised towards mankind?
Two ways; first, peculiarly Deut. 32: 10; Ps. 17: 8;
towards his church, or elect, Zech. 2: 8; Matt. 16: 18, 19:
in their generations, for 2, 29; 1 Pet. 5: 7.
whom are all things;
secondly, towards all in a Gen. 9: 5; Ps. 75: 6, 7; Isa.
general manner, yet with 45: 6, 7; Matt. 5: 45.
various and divers
Q. 3. Wherein chiefly consists the outward providence of God towards
In three things; – first, in Matt. 6: 31-33; Rom. 8: 28; 1
causing and things to work Tim. 6: 17; 2 Pet. 1: 3.
together for their good; Though the dispensations of
God’s providence towards his
people be various, yet every
issue and act of it tends to
one certain end, – their good
in his glory.
secondly, in ruling and Ps. 105: 14,15; Isa. 44: 28;
disposing of kingdoms, Dan. 2: 44; Rom. 9: 17.
nations, and persons, for
thirdly, in avenging them of Isa. 60: 12; Zech. 12: 2-5;
their adversaries. Luke 17: 7; Rev. 17: 14.
Q. 4. Does God rule also in and over the sinful actions of wicked
Yea, he willingly (according 2 Sam. 12: 11, 16: 10; 1
to his determinate counsel) Kings 11: 31, 22: 22; Job 1:
suffereth them to be, for the 21; Prov. 22: 14; Isa. 10: 6,
manifestation of his glory, 7; Ezek. 21: 19-21; Amos 7:
and by them effecteth his own 17; Acts 4: 27, 28; Rom. 1:
righteous ends. 24, 9: 22; 1 Pet. 2: 8; Rev.
Almighty God allows how in
bring light out of darkness,
good out of evil, the
salvation of his elect out of
Judas’s treachery, the Jews’
cruelty, and Pilate’s
Chap. 7. Of the Law of God.
Q 1. Which is the law that God gave man at first to fulfil?
The same which was afterwards Rom. 2: 14, 15.
written with the finger of This law of God bindeth us
God in two tables of stone on now, not because delivered to
Mount Horeb, called the Ten the Jews on Mount Horeb, but
Commandments. because written in the hearts
of all by the finger of God
at the first.
Q. 2. Is the observation of this law still required of us?
Yes, to the uttermost tittle. Matt. 5: 17; 1 John 3: 4;
Rom. 3: 31; James 2: 8-10;
Q. 3. Are we able of After the fall, the law
ourselves to perform it? ceased to be a rule of
justification, and became a
rule for sanctification only.
It is of free grace that God
giveth power to yield any
obedience, and accepteth at
any obedience that is not
No, in no wise; the law is 1 Kings 8: 46; Gen. 6: 5;
spiritual, but we are carnal. John 15: 5; Rom. 7: 14, 8: 7;
1 John 1: 8.
Q4. Did, then, God give a law which could not be kept?
No; when God gave it, we had Gen. 1: 26; Eph. 4: 19; Rom.
power to keep it; which since 5: 12.
we have lost in Adam.
Q. 5. Whereto, then, does the law now serve?
For two general ends;
first, to be a rule of our Ps. 19: 7-11; 1 Tim. 1: 8, 9.
duty, or to discover to us
the obedience of God
secondly, lets drive us unto Gal. 3: 24.
Q 6. How does the law drive us unto Christ?
Divers ways; as,
first, by laying open unto us Rom. 7: 7-9; Gal. 3: 19.
the utter disability of our
nature to do any good;
secondly, by charging the Rom. 3: 19, 20, 4: 15, 5: 20;
wrath and curse of God, due Gal. 3: 10.
to sin, upon the conscience;
thirdly, by bringing the Gal. 3: 22; Heb. 2: 15.
whole soul under bondage to
sin, death, Satan, and hell,
– so making us long and seek
for a Saviour.
Chap. 8. – Of the State of Corrupted Nature.
Q. 1. How came this weakness and disability upon us?
By the sin and shameful fall Rom. 5: 12, 14.
of our first parents. This is that which commonly
is called original sin, which
in general denoteth the whole
misery and corruption of our
nature; as, –
1. The guilt of Adam’s
actual sin to us imputed;
2. Loss of God’s glorious
image, innocency and
3. Deriving by propagation
a nature – (1.) Defiled with
the pollution, (2.) Laden
with the guilt, (3.)
Subtitled to the power of
4. A being exposed to all
temporal miseries, leading to
and procuring death;
5. An alienation from God,
with voluntary obedience to
Satan and lust;
6. An utter disability to
good, or to labour for mercy;
7. Eternal damnation of
body and soul in hell.
Q. 2. Wherein did that hurt us, their posterity?
first, in that we were all John 3: 36; Rom. 5: 12; Eph.
guilty of the same breach of 2: 3.
covenant with Adam, being all
secondly, our souls with his Gen. 3:10; Eph 4: 23, 24;
were deprived of that Col. 3: 10.
holiness, innocence, and
righteousness wherein they
were at first created;
thirdly, pollution and Job 14: 4; Ps. 51: 7; John 3:
defilement of nature came 6; Rom. 3: 13.
upon us; with,
fourthly, an extreme Gen. 6:5; Eph. 2: 1; Jer. 6:
disability of doing any thing 16, 13: 23; Rom. 8: 7.
that is well-pleasing unto
by all which we are made Gen. 3: 17; Gal. 3: 10.
obnoxious to the curse.
Q. 3. Wherein does the curse of God consist?
In divers things;
first, in the guilt of death, Gen. 2: 17; Rom. 1: 18, 5:
temporal and eternal; 12, 17; Eph. 2: 3.
All that a natural man has on
this side hell is free mercy.
secondly, the loss of the Gen. 3: 24; Ezek. 16: 3-5;
grace and favour of God; Eph 2: 13.
thirdly, guilt and horror of Gen. 3: 10; Isa. 48: 22; Rom.
conscience, despair and 3: 9, 19, Gal. 3: 22.
anguish here; with,
fourthly, eternal damnation Gen. 3: 10, 13; John 3: 36.
Q. 4. Are all men born in this estate?
Every one without exception. Ps. 51: 5; Isa. 53: 6; Rom.
3: 9-12; Eph. 2: 3.
Q. 5. And do they continue therein?
Of themselves they cannot The end of this is Jesus
otherwise do, Christ, to all that fly for
refuge to the hope set before
Being able neither to know, Acts 8: 31, 16: 14; 1 Cor. 2:
14; Eph. 5:8; John 1: 5.
nor will, Jer. 6: 16, 13: 23; Luke 4:
18; Rom. 6: 16, 8: 7.
nor do any thing that is John 6: 44; 2 Cor. 3: 5.
spiritually good and pleasing
Q. 6. Have they, then, no way of themselves to escape the curse and
wrath of God?
None at all; they can neither
satisfy his justice, nor
fulfil his law.
Chap. 9. – Of the Incarnation of Christ.
Q. 1. Shall all mankind, then, everlastingly perish?
No; God, of his free grace, John 3: 16; Isa. 53: 6.
has prepared a way to redeem
and save his elect.
Q. 2. What way was this?
By sending his own Son Jesus Rom. 8: 3.
Christ in the likeness of This is that great mystery of
sinful flesh, condemning sin godliness that the angels
in the flesh. themselves admire – the most
transcendent expression of
God’s infinite love, – the
laying forth of all the
treasure of his wisdom and
Q. 3. Who is this you call his own Son?
The second person of the John 1: 14; Rom. 1: 3; Gal.
Trinity, coeternal and of the 4: 4; 1 John 1: 1.
one Deity with his Father.
Q. 4. How did God send him?
A. By causing him to be made Isa. 1. 6; John 1: 14; Luke
flesh of a pure virgin, and 1: 35; Phil. 2: 8; 1 Tim. 3:
to dwell among us, that he 16.
might be obedient unto death,
the death of the cross.
Chap. 10. – Of the Person of Jesus Christ.
Q. 1. What does the Scripture teach us of Jesus Christ?
Chiefly two things 1. Though our Saviour
first, his person, or what he Christ be one God with his
is in himself; secondly, his Father, he is not one person
offices, or what he is unto with him.
us. 2. Jesus Christ is God and
man in one, – not a God and a
man; God incarnate, – not a
3. The essential properties
of either nature remain in
his person theirs still, not
communicated unto the other;
as of the Deity to be
eternal, everywhere; of the
humanity to be born and die.
4. Whatever may be said of
either nature may be said of
the whole person; so God may
be said to die, but not the
Godhead; the man Christ to be
everywhere, but not his
humanity; for his one person
is all this.
5. The monstrous figment of
Christ’s corporeal presence
in the sacrament, fully
overthrows our Saviour’s
human nature, and makes him a
6. All natural properties
are double in Christ, – as
will, &c., still distinct;
all personal, as subsistence,
Q. 2. What does it teach of his person?
That he is truly God, and John 1: 14; Heb. 2: 14, 15;
perfect man, partaker of the Eph. 4: 5; 1 Tim 2: 5; 1 John
natures of God and man in one 1: 1.
person, between whom he is a
Q. 3. How prove you Jesus Christ to be truly God?
Divers ways; first, by places of Scripture, speaking of the great
God Jehovah in the Old Testament, applied to our Saviour in the
New; as, Numb. 21: 5, 6, in 1 Cor. 10: 9; Ps. 102: 25-27, in
Heb. 1:10; Isa. 6: 2-4, in John 12: 40,41; Isa. 8:13,14, in
Luke 2: 34, Rom. 9: 33; Isa. 40: 3, 4, in John 1: 23; Isa. 45:
22, 23, in Rom. 14: 11, Phil. 2: 10, 11; Mal. 3: 1, in Matt.
Secondly, By the works of the Deity ascribed unto him; as, first, of
creation, John 1: 3; 1 Cor. 8: 6; Heb. 1: 2; secondly, of
preservation in providence, Heb. 1: 3; John 5: 17; thirdly,
Thirdly, By the essential attributes of God being ascribed unto him;
as, first, immensity, Matt. 28: 20; John 14: 23; Eph. 3: 17;
secondly, eternity, John 1: 1; Rev. 1: 11; Mic. 5: 2; thirdly,
immutability, Heb. 1: 11, 12; fourthly, omniscience, John 21:
17; Rev. 2: 23; fifthly, majesty and glory equal to his Father,
John 5: 23; Rev. 5: 13; Phil. 1: 2, 2: 6, 9, 10.
Fourthly, By the names given unto him; as, first, of God expressly,
John 1: 1, 20: 28; Acts 20: 28; Rom. 9: 5; Phil. 2: 6; Heb. 1:
8; 1 Tim. 3: 16; secondly, of the Son of God, John 1: 18; Rom.
8: 3, &c.
Q. 4. Was it necessary that our Redeemer should be God?
Yes; that he might be able to Isa 43: 25, 53: 6; Dan. 9:
save to the uttermost, and to 17, 19.
satisfy the wrath of his
Father, which no creature
Q. 5. How prove you that he was a perfect man?
First, By the prophecies that went Gen. 2: 15, 18: 18.
before, that so he should be.
Secondly, By the relation of their Matt. 1: 1; Rom. 1: 4; Gal.
accomplishment. 4: 4.
Thirdly, By the Scriptures
assigning to him those things
which are required to a
perfect man; as,
first, a body, Luke 24: 39; Heb. 2: 17, 10:
5; 1 John 1: 1;
secondly, a soul, Matt. 26: 38; Mark 14: 34;
and therein, Matt. 26: 39;
first, a will,
secondly, affections, Mark 3: 5; Luke 10: 21;
thirdly, endowments, Luke 2: 52.
Fourthly, General infirmities of Matt. 4: 2; John 4: 6; Heb.
nature. 2: 18.
Q. 6. Wherefore was our Redeemer to be man?
That the nature which had Heb. 2: 10-17.
offended might suffer, and
make satisfaction, and so he
might be every way a fit and
sufficient Saviour for men.
Chap. 11. – Of the Offices of Christ; and, First, of His Kingly.
Q. 1. How many are the offices of Jesus Christ?
Three; first, of a King; Ps. 2: 6.
secondly, of Priest; Ps. 110: 4.
In the exercise of these
offices, Christ is also the
sole head, husband, God
firstborn of the church.
Papal usurpation upon these
offices of Christ manifests
the pope to be the Man of
thirdly, of Prophet. Deut. 18: 15.
Q. 2. Hath he these offices peculiar by nature?
No; he only received them for Ps. 110: l; Acts 2: 36, 10:
the present dispensation, 42; 1 Cor. 11: 3, 15: 27, 28;
until the work of redemption Phil. 2: 9; Heb. 3: 2, 6, 2:
be perfected. 7-9.
Q. 3. Wherein does the kingly office of Christ consist?
In a two-fold power; first, Ps. 110: 3-7.
his power of ruling in and
over his church; secondly,
his power of subduing his
Q. 4. What is his ruling power in and over his people?
That supreme authority which, Christ’s subjects are all
for their everlasting good, born rebels, and are
he useth towards them, stubborn, until he make them
whereof in general there be obedient by his Word and
two acts; spirit.
Christ has not delegated his
kingly power of law-making
for his church to any here
first, internal and Isa. 53: 12, 59: 20, 21, with
spiritual, in converting Heb. 8: 10-12; Isa. 61: 1, 2;
their souls unto him, making John 1: 16, 12: 32; Mark 1:
them unto himself a willing, 15; Matt. 28: 20; 2 Cor. 10:
obedient, persevering people; 4, 5.
secondly, eternal and Matt. 16: 19; 1 Cor. 12: 28;
ecclesiastical, in giving Eph. 4: 8-14; 2 Tim. 3: 16,
perfect laws and rules for 17; Rev. 22: 18, 19.
their government, as gathered
into holy societies under
Q. 5. How many are the acts of his kingly power towards his enemies?
first, internal, by the Ps. 110; John 6: 46, 8: 59,
mighty working of his Word, 9: 41, 12: 40; 2 Cor. 10: 4-
and the spirit of bondage 6; 1 Cor. 5: 6; 1 Tim. 1: 20.
upon their hearts, The end of Christ in
convincing, amazing, exercising his kingly power
terrifying their consciences, over his enemies, is the
hardening their spirits for glory of the gospel and the
ruin; good of his people.
Secondly, external, in Mark 16: 16; Luke 19: 27;
judgements and vengeance, Acts 13: 11; Rev. 17: 14.
which ofttimes he beginneth
in this life, and will
continue unto eternity.
Chap. 12. – Of Christ’s Priestly Office.
Q. 1. By what means did Jesus Christ undertake the office of an
By the decree, ordination, Ps. 110: 4; Heb. 5: 5,6, 7:
and will of God his Father, 17,18.
whereunto he yielded Isa. 50: 4-6; Heb. 10: 5-10.
so that concerning this there Ps. 2: 7, 8; Isa. 53: 8,
was a compact and covenant 10-12; Phil. 2: 7, 9; Heb.
between them. 12: 2; John 17: 2, 4.
Q. 2. Wherein does his execration of this office consist?
In bringing his people unto Heb. 2: 10, 4: 16, 7: 25.
Q. 3. What are the parts of it?
First, oblation; Heb. 9: 14.
secondly, intercession. Heb. 7: 25.
Against both these the
Papists are exceedingly
blasphemous; against the one,
by making their mass a
sacrifice for sins, – the
other, by making saints
mediators of intercession.
Q. 4. What is the oblation of Christ?
The offering up of himself Isa. 53: 10,12; John 3: 16,
upon the altar of the cross, 11: 51, 17: 19; Heb. 9:
an holy propitiatory 13,14.
sacrifice for the sins of all
the elect throughout the
as also, the presentation of Heb. 9: 24.
himself for us in heaven,
sprinkled with the blood of
Q. 5. Whereby does this oblation do good unto us?
Divers ways; Eph 2: 14, 15.
first, in that it satisfied
the justice of God;
secondly, it redeemed us from
the power of sin, death, and
third]y, it ratified the new
covenant of grace;
fourthly, it procured for us
grace here, and glory
by all which means the peace
and reconciliation between
God and us is wrought.
Q. 6. How did the oblation of Christ satisfy God’s justice for our
In that for us he underwent Isa. 53: 4-6; John 10:11;
the punishment due to our Rom. 3: 25, 26, 4: 25; 1 Cor.
sin. 15: 3; 2 Cor. 5: 21; Eph. 5:
2; 1 Pet. 2: 24.
punishment for us was,
1 first, typified by the old
2 secondly, foretold in the
3 thirdly, made lawful and
valid in itself, – first, by
God’s determination, the
supreme lawgiver; secondly,
his own voluntary undergoing
it; thirdly, by a relaxation
of the law in regard of the
subject punished; –
4 fourthly, beneficial to us,
because united to us; as,
first, our head; secondly,
our elder brother; thirdly,
our sponsor or surety;
fourthly, our husband;
fifthly, our God, or
Q. 7. What was that punishment?
A. The wrath of God, the Gen. 2: 17; Deut. 27: 15-26;
curse of the law, the pains Isa. 59: 2; Rom. 5: 12; Eph
of hell, due to sinners, in 2: 3; John 3: 36; Heb. 2: 14.
body and soul. No change in all these, but
what necessarily follows the
charge of the persons
Q. 8. Did Christ undergo all these?
Yes; in respect of the Matt. 26: 28; Mark 14: 33,
greatness and extremity, not 34; 15: 34; Gal. 3: 13; Eph
the eternity and continuance 2: 16; Col. 1: 20; Heb. 5: 7;
of those pains; for it was Ps. 18: 5.
impossible he should be The death that Christ
holden of death. underwent was eternal in its
own nature and tendence, –
not so to him, because of his
holiness, power, and the
unity of his person.
9. How could the punishment of one satisfy for the offence of all?
In that he was not a mere man Rom. 5: 9; Heb. 9: 26; 1 Pet.
only, but God also, of 3: 18.
infinitely more value than He suffered not as God, but
all those who had offended. he suffered who was God.
Q. 10. How did the oblation of Christ redeem from death and hell?
First, by paying a ransom to Matt. 20: 28; John 6: 51;
God, the judge and lawgiver, Mark 10: 45; Rom. 3: 25; 1
who had condemned us; Cor. 6: 20; Gal. 3: 13; Eph
1: 7; 1 Tim. 2: 6; Heb. 10:
We are freed from the anger
of God, by a perfect
rendering to the full value
of what he required, – from
the power of Satan, by
absolute conquest on our
secondly, by overcoming and John 5: 24; Col. 2: 13-15; 1
spoiling Satan, death, and Thess. 1: 10; Heb. 2: 14; 1
the powers of hell, that Pet. 1: 18, 19.
detained us captives.
Q. 11. What was the ransom that Christ paid for us?
His own precious blood. Acts 20: 28; 1 Pet. 1: 19.
Q. 12. How was the new covenant ratified in his blood?
By being accompanied with his Gen. 22: 18; Heb. 9: 16, 8:
death; for that, as all other 10-12.
testaments, was to be The new covenant is Christ’s
ratified by the death of the legacy, in his last will unto
testator. his people, – the eternal
inheritance of glory being
Q. 13. What is this new covenant?
The gracious, free, immutable Gen. 3: 15; Jer. 31: 31-34,
promise of God, made unto all 32: 40; Heb. 8: 10-12.
his elect fallen in Adam,
to give them Jesus Christ, Gal. 3: 8, 16; Gen. 12: 3.
and in him mercy, pardon, Rom. 8: 32; Eph. 1: 3, 4.
grace, and glory,
with a re-stipulation of Mark 16: 16; John 1: 12, 10:
faith from them unto this 27, 28.
promise, and new obedience.
Q. 14. How did Christ procure for us grace, faith, and glory?
By the way of purchase and Isa. 53: 11, 12; John 17: 2;
merit; for the death of Acts 20: 28; Rom. 5: 17, 18;
Christ deservedly procured of Eph. 2: 15, 16, 1: 4; Phil.
God that he should bless us 1: 29; Tit. 2: 14; Rev. 1: 5,
with all spiritual blessings 6.
needful for our coming unto The death of Christ was
him. satisfactory in respect of
the strict justice of God,
meritorious in respect of the
covenant between him and his
All these holy truths are
directly denied by the
blasphemous Socinians; and by
the Papists, with their
merits, masses, penance, and
purgatory, by consequent,
Q. 15. What is the intercession of Christ?
His continual soliciting of Ps. 2: 8; Rom. 8: 34; Heb. 7:
God on our behalf, begun here 25, 9: 24, 10: 19-21; 1 John
in fervent prayers, continued 2: 1, 2; John 17.
in heaven by appearing as our To make saints our
advocate at the throne of intercessors, is to renounce
grace. Jesus Christ from being a
Chap. 13. – Of Christ’s Prophetical Office.
Q. 1. Wherein does the prophetical office of Christ consist?
In his embassage from God to Matt. 5; John 1: 18, 3: 32,
man, revealing from the bosom 9, 14, 14: 5, 6, 17: 8, 18:
of his Father the whole 37.
mystery of godliness, the way Christ differed from all
and truth whereby we must other prophets; first, in his
come unto God. sending, which was
immediately from the bosom of
his Father; secondly, his
assistance, which was the
fulness of the Spirit;
thirdly, his manner of
teaching, – with authority.
Q. 2. Mow does he exercise this office towards us?
By making known the whole Deut. 18: 18; Isa. 42: 6;
doctrine of truth unto us in Heb. 3: 1.
a saving and spiritual To accuse his Word of
manner. imperfection, in doctrine or
discipline, is to deny him a
perfect prophet, or to have
borne witness unto all truth.
Q. 3. By what means does he perform all this?
first, internally and Jer. 31: 31-34; 2 Cor. 3: 3;
effectually, by his Spirit 1 Thess. 4: 9; Heb. 8: 10.
writing his law in our
secondly, outwardly and John 20: 31; 1 Cor. 12: 28;
instrumentally, by the Word Eph. 4: 8-13; 2 Pet. 1:21.
Chap. 14. – Of the Two-fold Estate of Christ.
Q. 1. In what estate or condition does Christ exercise these
In a two-fold estate; first, Phil. 2: 8-10.
of humiliation or abasement; The humiliation of Christ
secondly, of exaltation or shows us what we must here do
glory. and suffer, his exaltation,
what we may hope for.
The first of these holds
forth his mighty love to us;
the other his mighty power in
The only way to heaven is by
Q. 2. Wherein consisteth the state of Christ’s humiliation?
In three things;
first, in his incarnation, or Luke 1: 35; John 1: 14; Rom.
being born of woman; 1: 3; Gal. 4: 4; Heb. 2: 9,
secondly, this obedience, or Matt. 3: 15, 5: 17; Luke 2:
fulfilling the whole law, 21; John 8: 46; 2 Cor. 5: 21;
moral and ceremonial; 1 Pet. 1: 19; 1 John 3: 5.
thirdly, in his passion, or Isa. 53: 6; Heb. 2: 9; 1 Pet.
enduring all sorts of 2: 21.
miseries, even death itself.
Q. 3. Wherein consists his exaltation?
In, first, his resurrection; Matt. 28: 18; Rom. 1: 4, 6:
secondly, ascension; thirdly, 4; Eph. 4: 9; Phil. 2: 9, 10;
sitting at the right hand of 1 Tim. 3: 16.
God; – by all which he was
declared to be the Son of God
Chap. 15. – Of the Persons to whom the Benefits of Christ’s Offices
Q. 1. Unto whom do the saving benefits of what Christ performeth, in
the execution of his offices, belong?
Only to his elect. John 17: 9; Isa. 63: 9; Heb.
3: 6, 10: 21.
Christ giveth life to all
that world for whom he gave
None that he died for shall
To say that Christ died for
every man universally, is to
affirm that he did no more
for the elect than the
reprobates, – for them that
are saved than for them. that
are damned; which is the
Q. 2. Died he for no other?
None, in respect of his Acts 20: 28; Matt. 20:28,
Father’s eternal purpose, and 26:28; Heb. 9: 28; John 11:
his own intention of removing 51,52; Isa. 53:12; John 3:l6,
wrath from them, and 10:11-13,15; Eph. 5:25; Rom.
procuring grace and glory for 8: 32, 34; Gal. 3: 13; John
them. 6: 37, 39; Rom. 4: 25; 2 Cor.
5: 19, 20.
Q. 3. What shall become of them for whom Christ died not?
Everlasting torments for Mark 16: 16; John 3: 36;
their sins; their portion in Matt. 25: 41; Acts 1: 25.
their own place.
Q. 4. For whom does he make intercession?
Only for those who from John 17; Heb. 7: 24, 25.
eternity were given him by
Chap. 16. – Of the Church.
Q. 1. How are the elect called, in respect of their obedience unto
Christ, and union with him?
His church. Acts 20: 28; Eph. 5: 32.
Q. 2. What is the church of Christ?
The whole company of God’s The elect angels belong to
elect, this church.
No distance of time or place
breaks the unity of this
church: heaven and earth,
from the beginning of the
world unto the end, are
comprised in it.
No mention in Scripture of
any church in purgatory.
This is the catholic church;
– though that term be not to
be found in the Word in this
sense, the thing itself is
The pope, challenging unto
himself the title of the head
of the catholic church, is
against Jesus Christ.
called Acts 2: 47; 1 Tim. 5: 21;
Heb. 12: 22-24.
of God, Rom. 1: 5, 6, 9:11,24; 1 Cor.
4: 15; 2 Tim. 1: 9.
by the Word and Spirit, Acts 16: 14; John 3: 8; 1
Cor. 4: 15; 1 Pet. 1: 23;
Heb. 8: 10.
out of their natural Eph. 2: 11-13; Col. 1: 13;
condition, to the dignity of Heb. 2: 14, 15; 1 Pet. 2: 9.
and united unto Christ their John 17: 21; Eph. 2: 18-22.
head, by faith, in the bond
of the Spirit.
Q. 3. Is this whole church always in the same state?
No; one part of it is militant, the other triumphant.
Q. 4. What is the church militant?
That portion of God’s elect Eph. 6: 11, 12; Heb. 11: 13,
which, in their generation, 14, 12: 1, 4.
cleaveth unto Christ by
faith, and fighteth against
the world, flesh, and devil.
Q5. What is the church triumphant?
That portion of God’s people Eph. 5: 27; Rev. 3: 21, 14:
who, having fought their 13.
fight and kept the faith, are
now in heaven, resting from
Q. 6. Are not the church of the Jews before the birth of Christ, and
the church of the Christians since, two churches?
No; essentially they are but Eph. 2: 11-16; 1 Cor. 10: 3;
one, differing only in some Gal. 4: 26, 27; Heb. 11: 16,
outward administrations. 26, 40.
This is that ark out of which
whosoever is shall surely
Q. 7. Can this church be wholly overthrown on the earth?
No; unless the decree of God Matt. 16:18, 28:20; John
may be changed, and the 14:16; John 17; 1 Tim. 3: 15;
promise of Christ fail. 2 Tim. 2: 19.
Chap. 17. – Of Faith.
Q. 1. By what means do we become actual members of this church of
By a lively justifying faith, Acts 2:47, 13:48; Heb. 11:6,
whereby we are united unto 12:22,23, 4:2; Rom. 5:1,2;
Christ, the head thereof. Eph. 2:13,14.
Of this faith the Holy Spirit
is the efficient cause, the
Word, the instrumental; – the
Law indirectly, by
discovering our misery; the
Gospel immediately, by
holding forth a Saviour.
Q. 2. What is a justifying faith?
A gracious resting upon the 1 Tim. 1: 16; Job 13: 15,
free promises of God in Jesus 19:25; Rom. 4: 5.
Christ for mercy, Faith is in the
understanding, in respect of
its being and subsistence, –
in the will and heart, in
respect of its effectual
with a firm persuasion of Heb. 4:16; Rom. 8: 38,39;
heart that God is a Gal. 2:20; 2 Cor. 5: 20,21.
reconciled Father unto us in
the Son of his love.
Q. 3. Have all this faith?
None but the elect of God. Tit. 1: l; John 10: 26; Matt.
13: 11; Acts 13: 48; Rom. 8:
Q4. Do not, then, others believe that make profession?
Yes; with, first, historical James 2: 19.
faith, or a persuasion that
the things written in the
Word are true;
secondly, temporary faith, Matt. 13: 20; Mark 6: 20;
which has some joy of the John 2: 23,24; Acts 8: 13.
affections, upon unspiritual
grounds, in the things
Chap. 18. – Of our Vocation, or God’s Calling us.
Q. 1. How come we to have this saving faith?
It is freely bestowed upon us John 6: 29,44; Eph. 2: 8, 9;
and wrought in us by the Phil. 1: 29; 2 Thess. 1: 11.
Spirit of God, in our
vocation or calling.
Q2. What is our vocation, or this calling of God?
The free, gracious act of Col. 1:12,13; 2 Tim. 1:9;
Almighty God, whereby in Deut. 30:6; Ezek. 36:26;
Jesus Christ he calleth and Matt. 11:25, 26; John 1:13,
translateth us from the state 3:3, 8; Eph. 1: 19; Col. 2:
of nature, sin, wrath, and 12; 1 Cor. 4: 7; James 1: 18;
corruption, into the state of 2 Pet. 2: 20; Acts 16: 14.
grace and union with Christ, Our effectual calling is the
by the mighty, effectual first effect of our
working of his Spirit in the everlasting election.
preaching of the Word. We have no actual interest in
nor right unto Christ, until
we are thus called.
Q. 3. What do we ourselves perform in this change, or work of our
Nothing at all, being merely Matt. 7: 18, 10: 20; John 1:
wrought upon by the free 13, 15:5; 1 Cor. 12:3, 2:5; 2
grace and Spirit of God, when Cor. 3:5; Eph 2:1,8; Rom.
in ourselves we have no 8:26; Phil. 1:6.
ability to any thing that is They who so boast of the
spiritually good. strength of free-will in the
work of our conversion are
themselves an example what it
is being given up to so vile
an error, – destitute of the
grace of God.
Q. 4. Does God thus call all and every one?
All within the pale of the Matt. 22: 14; Rom. 8: 30.
church are outwardly called
by the Word, none effectually
but the elect.
Chap. 19. – Of Justification.
Q. 1. Are we accounted righteous and saved for our faith, when we
are thus freely called?
No, but merely by the Isa. 43: 25; Rom. 3:23-26,
imputation of the 4:5.
righteousness of Christ, Legal and evangelical
apprehended and applied by justification differ; first,
faith; for which alone the on the part of the persons to
Lord accepts us as holy and be justified, – the one
righteous. requiring a person legally
and perfectly righteous, –
the other a believing sinner;
secondly, on the part of God,
who in the one is a severe,
righteous judge, – in the
other, a merciful, reconciled
Father; thirdly, in the
sentence, which in the one
acquitteth, as having done
nothing amiss, – in the
other, as having all amiss
Q. 2. What, then, is our justification or righteousness before God?
The gracious, free act of Gen. 15: 6; Acts 13: 38, 39;
God, imputing the Luke 18: 14; Rom. 3:
righteousness of Christ to a 24,26,28, 4:4-8; Gal. 2: 16.
believing sinner, and for
that speaking peace unto his
conscience, in the pardon of
pronouncing him to be just
and accepted before him.
Q. 3. Are we not, then, righteous before God by our own works?
No; for of themselves they Ps. 130:3,4, 143:2; Isa. 64:
can neither satisfy his 6; Luke 17:10.
justice, fulfil his law, nor
endure his trial.
Chap. 20. – Of Sanctification.
Q. 1. Is there nothing, then, required of us but faith only?
repentance, Acts 20: 21; Matt. 3: 2; Luke
and holiness or new 2 Tim. 2: 19; 1 Thess. 4: 7;
obedience. Heb. 12: 14.
Q. 2. What is repentance?
Godly sorrow for every known 2 Cor. 7: 9-11; Acts 2: 37;
sin committed against God, Ps. 51: 17.
Repentance includeth, first,
alteration of the mind into a
hatred of sin, before loved;
secondly, sorrow of the
affections for sin committed;
thirdly, change of the
actions arising from both.
Repentance is either legal,
servile, and terrifying, from
the spirit of bondage; or
evangelical, filial, and
comforting, from the spirit
of free grace and liberty,
which only is available.
with a firm purpose of heart Ps. 34: 14; Isa. 1: 16, 17;
to cleave unto him for the Ezek. 18:27,28; Acts 14: 15.
in the killing of sin, the Eph. 4: 21-24; Rom. 6:12,13,
quickening of all graces, to 18,19, 8:l; 2 Cor. 5: 17;
walk before him in newness of Gal. 6: 15.
Q. 3. Can we do this of ourselves?
No; it is a special gift and Lev. 20:8; Deut. 30:6; Ezek.
grace of God, which he 11:19,20; 2 Tim. 2:25; Acts
bestoweth on whom he pleaseth 11:18.
Q. 4. Wherein does the being of true repentance consist, without
which it is not acceptable?
In its performance according Ps. 51; 1 John 2:1,2; 2 Cor.
to the Gospel rule, with 7:10,11; Acts 2:38; Matt.
faith and assured hope of 26:75.
divine mercy. Every part of Popish
repentance – viz.,
contrition, confession, and
satisfaction – was performed
Q. 5. What is that holiness which is required of us?
That universal, sincere Ps. 119:9; 1 Sam. 15: 22;
obedience to the whole will John 14: 15; Rom. 6: 19; Heb.
of God, 12: 14; Tit. 2: 12; 2 Pet. 1:
5-7; Isa. 1:16,17.
All faith and profession,
without this holiness, is
vain and of no effect.
True faith can no more be
without true holiness than
true fire without heat.
in our hearts, minds, wills, l Chron. 28:9; Deut. 6: 5;
and actions, Matt. 22:37.
whereby we are in some Rom. 8: 29; 1 Cor. 11: l;
measure made conformable to Eph. 2:21; Col. 3:1-3; 2 Tim.
Christ, our head. 2:11, 12.
Q6. Is this holiness or obedience in us perfect?
Yes, in respect of all the 2 Kings 20: 3; Job 1: l;
parts of it, Matt. 5: 48; Luke 1: 6; 2
Cor. 7: l; Eph. 4: 24; Tit.
Merit of works in
unprofitable servants, no way
able to do their duty, is a
but not in respect of the Isa 64: 6; Ps. 130: 3; Exod.
degrees wherein God requires 28:38; Phil. 3:12.
Q. 7. Will God accept of that obedience which falls so short of what
Yes, from them whose persons Rom. 12: l; Phil. 4: 18; Heb.
he accepteth and justifieth 13: 16; 1 John 3: 22; Eph.
freely in Jesus Christ. 1:6.
In Christ are our persons
accepted freely, and for him
Q. 8. What are the parts of this holiness?
Internal, in the quickening Heb. 9: 14; Eph. 3: 16, 17;
of all graces, purging act Rom. 2:29, 6:12.
and external, in fervent and Matt. 5: 20; Rom. 8:1,2; Eph
frequent prayers, alms, and 4: 22, 23; Tit. 2:12.
all manner of righteousness. Particular precepts are
Q. 9. May not others perform these duties acceptably, as well as
those that believe?
No; all their performances in Prov. 15:8; John 9:31; Tit.
this kind are but abominable 1:15; Heb. 11:6.
sins before the Lord. The best duties of
unbelievers are but white
Chap. 21. – Of the Privileges of Believers.
Q. 1. What are the privileges of those that thus believe and repent?
First, union with Christ; secondly, adoption of children; thirdly,
Christian liberty; fourthly, a spiritual, holy right to the seals of
the new covenant; fifthly, communion with all saints; sixthly,
resurrection of the body unto life eternal.
Q. 2. What is our union with Christ?
An holy, spiritual 1 Cor. 12:12; John
conjunction unto him, 15:l,2,5-7, 17:23.
By virtue of this union,
Christ suffereth in our
afflictions; and we fill up
in our bodies what remaineth
From Christ, as head of the
church, we have spiritual
life, sense, and motion, or
growth in grace; secondly, as
the husband of the church,
love and redemption; thirdly,
as the foundation thereof,
stability and perseverance.
as our head, Eph. 4:15, 5:23; Col. 1:18.
husband, 2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5: 25-27;
and foundation, Matt. 16:18; Eph. 2:20-22; 1
whereby we are made partakers Rom. 8:9,11; Gal. 4:6; Phil.
of the same Spirit with him, 1:19.
and derive all good things John 1:12,16; Eph. 1:3.
Q. 3. What is our adoption?
Our gracious reception into John 1: 12; Rom. 8:15,17;
the family of God, as his Gal. 4:5; Eph. 1:5.
children, and co-heirs with
Q. 4. How come we to know this?
By the especial working of Rom. 8:15,17; Eph. 4:30; 1
the Holy Spirit in our John 3:l; Rom. 8:19,23; Tit.
hearts, sealing unto us the 2:13.
promises of God, and raising This is that great honour and
up our souls to an assured dignity of believers, which
expectation of the promised exalts them to a despising
inheritance. all earthly thrones.
Q. 5. What is our Christian liberty?
An holy and spiritual freedom Gal. 5: 1.
Our liberty is our
inheritance here below, which
we ought to contend for,
against all opposers.
from the slavery of sin, John 8: 32,34,36; Rom.
6:17,18; Isa. 61:1; 1 John 1:
7; 2 Cor. 5: 21.
the bondage of death and Rom. 8:15; Heb. 2:15; 1 Cor.
the curse of the law, Gal. 3:13; Eph. 2:15,16; Gal.
4:5; Rom. 8:1.
Jewish ceremonies, Acts 15:10,11; Gal. 3,4,5.
and thraldom of conscience, 2 Cor. 1:24; 1 Cor. 7: 23; 1
Pet. 2: 16.
purchased for us by Jesus 1 Cor. 2:12.
Christ, and revealed to us by
the Holy Spirit.
Q. 6. Are we, then, wholly freed from the moral law?
Yes, as a covenant, or as it Jer. 31: 31-33; Rom. 7:1-3,
has any thing in it bringing 6:14; Gal. 3:19,24; Rom. 8:
into bondage, – as the curse, 2; Gal. 5: 18.
power, dominion, and rigid Nothing makes men condemn the
exaction of obedience; law as a rule, but hatred of
that universal holiness which
it does require.
but not as it is a rule of Matt. 5: 17; Rom. 3:31,
life and holiness. 7:13,22,25.
Q. 7. Are we not freed by Christ from the magistrate’s power and
No; being ordained of God, Rom. 13:1-4; 1 Tim. 2:1,2; 1
and commanding for him, we Pet. 2:13-15.
owe them act lawful Rule and authority are as
obedience. necessary for human society
as fire and water for our
Chap. 22. – Of the Sacraments of the New Covenant in particular, – a
holy right whereunto is the Fourth Privilege of Believers.
Q. 1. What are the seals of the New Testament?
Sacraments instituted of Mark 16:16; John 3:5; Acts
Christ to be visible seats 2:38, 22:16; Rom. 4:11; 1
and pledges, whereby God in Cor. 10:2-4, 11:26-29.
him confirmeth the promises
of the covenant to all
believers, re-stipulating of
them growth in faith and
Q. 2. How does God by these sacraments bestow grace upon us?
Not by any real essential Heb. 4:2; 1 Cor. 10; Rom.
conveying of spiritual grace 4:11, 1:17; Mark 16:16; Eph.
by corporeal means, but by 5: 26.
the way of promise, This is one of the greatest
obsignation, and covenant, mysteries of the Roman magic
confirming the grace wrought and juggling that corporeal
in us by the Word and Spirit. elements should have a power
to forgive sins, and confer
Q. 3. How do our sacraments differ from the sacraments of the Jews?
Accidentally only, in things 1 Cor. 10:1,2, 3, &c.; John
concerning the outward matter 6:35; 1 Cor. 5: 7; Phil. 3:3;
and form, as their number, Col. 2:11.
quality, clearness of
signification, and the like,
– not essentially, in the
things signified, or grace
Chap. 23. – Of Baptism.
Q. 1. Which are these sacraments?
Baptism and the Lord’s supper.
Q. 2. What is baptism?
An holy action, appointed of Matt. 28:19; Mark 16:15,16.
Christ, whereby being Not the want, but the
sprinkled with water in the contempt of this sacrament,
name of the whole Trinity, by is damnable.
a lawful minister of the It is hard to say whether the
church, error of the Papists,
requiring baptism of
necessity to the salvation of
every infant, or that of the
Anabaptists, debarring them
from it altogether, be the
we are admitted into the Acts 2:41, 8:37.
family of God,
and have the benefits of the Acts 2:38,39; John 3:5; Rom.
blood of Christ confirmed 6:3-5; 1 Cor. 12: 13.
Q. 3. To whom does this sacrament belong?
Unto all to whom the promise Acts 2:39; Gen. 17:11,12;
of the covenant is made; that Acts 16:15; Rom. 4:10,11; 1
is, to believers, and to Cor. 7:14.
Q. 4. How can baptism seal the pardon of all sins to us, all our
personal sins following it?
Inasmuch as it is a seal of Acts 2: 39; Rom. 4: 11, 12.
that promise which gives
pardon of all to believers.
Chap. 24. – Of the Lord’s Supper.
Q. 1. What is the Lord’s supper?
An holy action instituted and Matt. 26: 26-28; Luke 22: 14-
appointed by Christ, 20; 1 Cor. 11: 23-25.
Baptism is the sacrament of
our new birth, this of our
farther growth in Christ.
to set forth his death, Luke 22:19; 1 Cor. 11: 25,
and communicate unto us Mark 14: 22-24; 1 Cor. 11:
spiritually his body and 24,25; John 6: 63.
blood by faith,
being represented by bread l Cor. 11: 23, 25.
blessed by his word, and 1 Cor. 11: 24; Matt. 26: 26.
broken, poured out, and Matt. 26:26; Mark 14:22; Luke
received of believers. 22:19.
No part of Christian religion
was ever so vilely
contaminated and abused by
profane wretches, as this
pure, holy, plain action and
institution of our Saviour:
witness the Popish horrid
transubstantiation, and their
Q. 2. When did Christ appoint this sacraments?
On the night wherein he was 1 Cor. 11: 23.
betrayed to suffer.
Q. 3. Whence is the right lose of it to be learned?
From the word, practice, and Whatever is more than these,
actions of our Saviour, at is of our own.
Q. 4. What were the actions of our Saviour to be imitated by us?
First, blessing the elements Matt. 26: 26; Mark 14: 22;
by prayer; secondly, breaking Luke 22:19,20; 1 Cor. 11: 23,
the bread, and pouring out 24.
the wine; thirdly,
distributing them to the
receivers, sitting in a
Q. 5. What were the words of Christ?
First, of command, – “Take, 1 Cor. 11: 24-26.
eat;” secondly, of promise, –
“This is my body;” thirdly,
of institution for perpetual
use, – “This do,” &c.
Q. 6. Who are to be receivers of this sacrament?
Those only have a true right 1 Cor. 11: 27-29; John 6: 63.
to the signs who by faith Faith in God’s promise, which
have an holy interest in it does confirm, – union with
Christ, the thing signified. Christ, whereof it is a seal,
– and obedience to the right
use of the ordinance itself,
– are required of all
There is not any one action
pertaining to the spiritual
nature of this sacrament, not
any end put upon it by
Christ, – as, first, the
partaking of his body and
blood; secondly, setting
forth his death for us;
thirdly, declaring of our
union with him and his, – but
requires faith, grace, and
holiness, in the receivers.
Q. 7. Do the elements remain bread and wine still, after the
blessing of them?
Yes; all the spiritual change John 6: 63; 1 Cor. 10:4,
is wrought by the faith of 11:29.
the receiver, not the words
of the giver: to them that
believe, they are the body
and blood of Christ.
Chap. 25. – Of the Communion of Saints, – the Fifth Privilege of
Q. 1. What is the communion of saints?
An holy conjunction between Cant. 6: 9; Jer. 32: 39; John
all God’s people, wrought by 17: 22; 1 Cor. 12: 12; Eph
their participation of the 4:3-6,13; 1 John 1:3,6,7.
same Spirit, whereby we are By virtue of this, we partake
all made members of that one in all the good and evil of
body whereof Christ is the the people of God throughout
head. the world.
Q. 2. Of what sort is this union?
First, spiritual and 1 Cor. 12:12,13; Eph 2:16,
internal, in the enjoyment of 19-22; 1 Cor. 10: 17; John
the same Spirit and graces, – 17: 11,21,22; John 10:16;
which is the union of the Heb. 1: 11.
secondly, external and l Cor. 1:10,11; Rom. 12:5; 1
ecclesiastical, in the same Cor. 12: 27,28; Eph 4: 11-13;
outward ordinances, – which Phil. 2: 2; Col. 3: 15; 1
is the union of particular Pet. 3: 8.
Chap. 26. – Of Particular Churches.
Q. 1. What are particular churches?
Peculiar assemblies of Acts 11: 26; 1 Cor. 4:17,
professors in one place, 11:22; 2 Cor. 1:1.
Every corruption does not
presently unchurch a people.
Unholiness of fellow-
worshippers defileth not
under officers of Christ’s Acts 20:17,28, 14:23; 2 Cor.
institution, 8:23; Heb. 13:17.
enjoying the ordinances of l Cor. 3: 6; Rev. 2: 1-3.
and leading lives be seeming 2 Thess. 3:5,6,11; Gal. 6:16;
their holy calling. Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 2:12.
Q. 2. What are the ordinary officers of such churches?
First, pastors or doctors, to Rom. 12: 7, 8; Eph. 4: 11; 1
teach and exhort; Cor. 12: 28.
Ministers are the bishops of
the Lord; lord-bishops came
secondly, elders, to assist Rom. 12: 8; 1 Tim. 5: 17.
in rule and government;
thirdly, deacons, to provide Acts 6:2,3.
for the poor.
Q. 3. What is required of these officers, especially the chiefest,
That they be faithful in the 1 Cor. 4: 2; Acts 20:18-20.
ministry committed unto them;
sedulous in dispensing the 2 Tim. 2: 15, 4: 1-5.
watching for the good of the Tit. 1: 13; 1 Tim. 4: 15, 16.
souls committed to them;
going before them in an Tit. 2: 7; 1 Tim. 4: 12;
example of all godliness and Matt. 5: 16; Acts 24: 16.
holiness of life.
Q. 4. What is required in the people unto them?
Obedience to their message 2 Cor. 5: 20; Rom. 6: 17;
and ministry; Heb. 13: 17; 2 Thess. 3: 14;
Rom. 16: 19; 2 Cor. 10: 4-6.
honour and love to their l Cor. 4: l; Gal. 4:14; 1
persons; Tim. 5:17,18.
maintenance to them and their Luke 10: 7; James 5: 4; 1
families. Tim. 5: 17, 18; 1 Cor. 9:
Chap. 27. – Of the Last Privilege of Believers, – being the Door of
Entrance into Glory.
Q. 1. What is the resurrection of the flesh?
An act of the mighty power of Job 19:25-27; Ps. 16: 9-11;
God’s Holy Spirit, applying Isa. 26: 19; Ezek. 37:2,3;
unto us the virtue of Dan. 12: 2; 1 Cor. 15: 16,
Christ’s resurrection, &c; Rev. 20:12,13.
whereby, at the last day, he The resurrection of the fresh
will raise our whole bodies hereafter is a powerful
from the dust, to be united motive to live after the
again unto our souls in Spirit here.
Q. 2. What is the end of this whole dispensation?
The glory of God in our eternal salvation.
To Him be all glory and honour for evermore! Amen.