A brief Overview of Eschatology by Scott Bushey

god's law


A brief overview of Eschatology:

The study of end times.

Webster’s defines the term as:

1:  a branch of theology concerned with the final events in the history of the world or of humankind

2:  a belief concerning death, the end of the world, or the ultimate destiny of humankind; specifically:  any of various Christian doctrines concerning the Second Coming, the resurrection of the dead, or the Last Judgment

It is derived from the Greek word: eschatos



The study of the last things of our faith.

An example is in Matthew 30

30 “But many who are first will be last; and the last, first.”
In this short study we will highlight some of the things related to the second coming and the final judgment.

After the resurrection, Christ made a specific statement about His presence:

I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.

At the moment I am sure that the apostles didn’t really understand this statement in it’s fullness especially after this event in the book of Acts:

9 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight.  10 And while they looked steadfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel;  11 Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.

We can see from this passage that Christ will return in a ‘like manner’ to creation on the day of the Lord. For His elect, in glory and to the unrepentant, in frightening condemnation. But it will be in ‘like’ manner.

Here are more passages on the subject:

Matthew 16:27   For the Son of Man is going to come in his Father’s glory with his angels, and then he will reward each person according to what he has done.

Christ will return in glory! Alongside Him will be the angels. There will be rewards! The people of God will get crowns of life. We will get mansions.


Matthew 23:39    For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, ‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.’


Matthew 24:27   For as lightning that comes from the east is visible even in the west, so will be the coming of the Son of Man.

I believe we spoke of this event in the past and how all the world, at one time, in an instant, be universally cognizant of Christ dissension. Frightening.


Matthew 24:30  “At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn.  They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory.


Matthew 24: 36-39  No one knows about that day or hour, not even the angels in heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.   As it was in the days of Noah, so it will be at the coming of the Son of Man.   For in the days before the flood, people were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, up to the day Noah entered the ark;  and they knew nothing about what would happen until the flood came and took them all away.  That is how it will be at the coming of the Son of Man.

Harold camping is silly. In light of this passage, how could he rightly make the statement he did a few years ago?


Matthew 24:42  “Therefore keep watch, because you do not know on what day your Lord will come.”

We are called to keep watch. Work out your salvation with fear and trembling. Test all things, make sure you are in the faith.


Mathew 26:64  “Yes it is as you say,”  Jesus replied.  “But I say to all of you:  In the future you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.”


Mark 8:36-38    What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his soul? Or what can a man give in exchange for his soul?  If anyone is ashamed of me and my words in this adulterous and sinful generation, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when he comes in his Father’s glory with holy angels.


Mark 13:26-27   At that time men will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory.  And he will send his angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens.


Mark 13:35-37   Therefore keep watch because you do not know when the owner of the house will come back – whether in the evening, or at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or at dawn.  If he comes suddenly, do not let him find you sleeping.  What I say to you, I say to everyone: ‘Watch!’


Mark 14:61-62    Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One?” “I am,” said Jesus. “And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.”


Luke 9:26-27   If anyone is ashamed of me and my words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when he comes in his glory and in the glory of the Father and of the holy angels.  I tell you the truth, some who are standing here will not taste death before they see the kingdom of God.”


Luke 17:28-30    “It was the same in the days of Lot.  People were eating and drinking, buying and selling, planting and building.  But the day Lot left Sodom, fire and sulfur rained down from heaven and destroyed them all.  “It will be just like this on the day the Son of Man is revealed.


The day Christ returns, it will be as today.


Luke 18:8    I tell you, he will see that they get justice, and quickly.  However, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith on the earth?”


Interesting question……


Luke 21:25-28  “There will be signs in the sun, moon and stars.  On the earth, nations will be in anguish and perplexity at the roaring and tossing of the sea.  Men will faint from terror, apprehensive of what is coming on the world, for the heavenly bodies will be shaken.   At that time they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.  When these things begin to take place, stand up and lift your heads, because your redemption is drawing near.”

Amen and amen.


John 14:1-4       “Do not let your hearts be troubled.  Trust in God ; trust also in me.  In my Father’s house are many rooms; if it were not so, I would have told you.  I am going there to prepare a place for you.  And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come back and take you to be with me that you also may be where I am.  You know the way to the place where I am going.”


Acts 1:11  “Men of Galilee,” they said. “why do you stand here looking into the sky?  This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.”


Acts 3:19-21    Repent, then, and turn to God, so that your sins may be wiped out, that times of refreshing may come from the Lord, and that he may send the Christ, who has been appointed for you – even Jesus.   He must remain in heaven until the time comes for God to restore everything, as he promised long ago through his holy prophets.


1 Corinthians 1:7    Therefore you do not lack any spiritual gift as you eagerly wait for our Lord Jesus Christ to be revealed.


1 Corinthians 4:5    Therefore judge nothing before the appointed time; wait till the Lord comes.   He will bring to light what is hidden in darkness and will expose the motives of men’s hearts.  At that time each will receive his praise from God.


1 Corinthians 11:26    For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.


1 Corinthians  15:23-24  But each in his own turn:  Christ, the first fruits; then, when he comes, those who belong to him.  Then the end will come, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father after he has destroyed all dominion, authority and power.


Philippians 1:10   so that you may be able to discern what is best and may be pure and blameless until the day of Christ, filled with the fruit of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ – to the glory and praise of God.


Philippians 3:20    But our citizenship is in heaven.  And we eagerly await a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, who, by the power that enables him to bring everything under his control, will transform our lowly bodies so that they will be like his glorious body.


Colossians 3:4    When Christ, who is your life, appears, then you also will appear with him in glory.


1 Thessalonians  1:9   for they themselves report what kind of reception you gave us.  They tell how you turned to God from idols to serve the living and true God, and to wait for his Son from heaven,   whom he raised from the dead – Jesus, who rescues us from the coming wrath.


1 Thessalonians 2:19   For what is our hope, our joy, or the crown in which we will glory in the presence of our Lord Jesus when he comes?  Is it not you?  Indeed, you are our glory and joy.


1 Thessalonians 3:13   May he strengthen your hearts so that you will be blameless and holy in the presence of our God and Father when our Lord Jesus comes with all his holy ones.


1 Thessalonians 4:15-5:4    According to the Lord’s own word, we tell you that we who are still alive, who are left till the coming of the Lord, will certainly not precede those who have fallen asleep.  For the Lord himself will come down from heaven, with a loud command, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet call of god, and the dead in Christ will rise first.  After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air.  And so we will be with the Lord forever.  Therefore encourage each other with these words.  Now, brothers, about times and dates we do not need to write to you, for you know very well that the day of the Lord will come like a thief in the night.  While people are saying, “Peace and safety,” destruction will come on them suddenly, as labor pains on a pregnant woman, and they will not escape.  But you, brothers, are not in darkness so that this day should surprise you like a thief.


1 Thessalonians 5:23   May God himself, the God of peace, sanctify you through and through.  May your whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.


2 Thessalonians 1:7    and give relief to you who are troubled, and to us as well.  This will happen when the Lord Jesus is revealed from heaven in blazing fire with his powerful angels.


2 Thessalonians  2:1    Concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ and our being gathered to him, we ask you, brothers, not to become easily unsettled or alarmed by some prophecy, report or letter supposed to have come from us, saying that the day of the Lord has already come.


2 Thessalonians 2:8    And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Lord Jesus will overthrow with the breath of his mouth and destory by the splendor of his coming.


1 Timothy 6:13-16    I charge you to keep this command without spot or blame until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, which God will bring about in his own time – God the blessed and only Ruler, the King of Kings and Lord of lords, who alone is immortal and who lives in unapproachable light, whom no one has seen or can see.  To him be honor and might forever.  Amen


2 Timothy 4:1-2     In the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who will judge the living and the dead, and in view of his appearing and his kingdom, I give you this charge:  Preach the word; be prepared in season and out of season; correct, rebuke and encourage- with great patience and careful instruction.


2 Timothy 4:8    Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day – and not only to me, but also to all who have longed for his appearing.


Titus 2:12    It teaches us to say “No” to ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives in this present age, while we wait for the blessed hope – the glorious appearing of our great God and Savior, Jesus christ, who gave himself for us to redeem us from all wickedness and to purify for himself a people that are his very own, eager to do what is good.


Hebrews 9:28    so Christ was sacrificed once to take away the sins of many people; and he will appear a second time, not to bear sin, but to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.


Hebrews 10:25    Let us not give up meeting together, as some are in the habit of doing, but let us encourage one another – and all the more as you see the day approaching.


Hebrews 3:7    For in just a very little while, “He who is coming will come and will not delay.


James 5:7-9    Be patient, then, brothers, until the Lord’s coming.  See how the farmer waits for the land to yield its valuable crop and how patient he is for the autumn and spring rains.  You too, be patient and stand firm, because the Lord’s coming is near.  Don’t grumble against each other, brothers, or you will be judged.  The Judge is standing at the door!


1 Peter 1:3-5     Praise be to the God and Father of our Lord jesus Christ!  In his great mercy he has given us new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, and to an inheritance that can never perish, spoil or fade – kept in heaven for you, who through faith are shielded by God’s power until the coming of the salvation that is ready to be revealed in the last time.


1 Peter 1:13    Therefore, prepare your minds for action;  be self-controlled; set your hope fully on the grace to be given you when Jesus Christ is revealed.


1 Peter 2:12    Live such good lives among the pagans that though they accuse you of doing wrong, they may see your good deeds and glorify God on the day he visits us.


1 Peter 4:13     But rejoice that you participate in the suffering of Christ, so that you may be overjoyed when his glory is revealed.


1 Peter 5:4     And when the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away.


2 Peter 1:16  We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty.


2 Peter 3:3    First of all, you must understand that in the last days scoffers will come, scoffing and following their own evil desires.  They will say, “Where is the ‘coming’ he promised?


2 Peter 3:8-10     But do not forget this one thing, dear friends:  With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day.  The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise,  as some understand slowness.  He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance.  But the day of the Lord will come like a thief.   The heavens will disappear with a roar;  The elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything in it will be laid bare.


1 John 2:28    And now, dear children, continue in him, so that when he appears we may be confident and unashamed before him at his coming.


1 John 3:2    Dear friends, now we are like children of God, and what we will be has not yet been made known.  But we know that when he appears, We shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is.   Everyone who has this hope in him purifies himself, just as he is pure.


Jude 1:14    Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about these men: “See, the Lord is coming with thousands upon thousands of his holy ones to judge everyone, and to convict all the ungodly of all the ungodly acts they have done in the ungodly way, and of all the harsh words ungodly sinners have spoken against him.”


Jude 1:21  Keep yourselves in God’s love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life.


Revelation 1:4    To the seven churches in the province of Asia:  Grace and peace to you from who is, and who was, and who is to come,


Revelation 1:7     Look, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who pierced him; and all the peoples of the earth will mourn because of him.  So shall it be! Amen.  I am the Alpha and the Omega, ” says the Lord God, who is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.”


Revelation 3:11    I am coming soon.   Hold on to what you have, so that no one will take your crown.  Him who overcomes I will make a pillar in the temple of my God.  Never again will he leave it.


Revelation 16:15    “Behold, I come like a thief!  Blessed is he who stays awake and keeps his clothes with him, so that he may not go naked and be shamefully exposed.”


Revelation 22:12  Behold, I am coming soon!  My reward is with me, and I will give to everyone according to what he has done.  I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.


Revelation 22:20-21  He who testifies to these things says, “Yes, I am coming soon.”  Amen, Come, Lord Jesus.  The grace of the Lord Jesus be with God’s people.  Amen.

I have said in days passed that if you have an end times view it would be by choice; choice only happens based upon the actual choosing between a comparison. If you have no comparison, i.e. you are amillenial, you really do not have an actual position because you have by default subscribed to a view. Most people fall into this treatment.


Let’s look at the various positions on end times and how they will play out or have played out. Below, you will find a series of questions that are numbered 1 through 8; these questions are answered according to a particular eschatological discipline entitled. The paper below was put together from a friend:

The Millennium-Major Views

~By Aaron Orendorff
The Questions – Revelation 20:1-8


(1)    When is the millennium – past, present and future?

(2)    When will Jesus return – before or after the millennium?

(3)    What does the binding of Satan refer to (v. 2)?

(4)    Is the thousand years a literal period of time (v. 2)?

(5)    What is the “first resurrection” (v. 4-6)?

(6)    What is the “second death”?

(7)    What and when will the rapture be?

(8)    What will the world be like until Christ returns?


(1)    The millennium is now, the entire period of time from the Jesus’ first coming to His second.

(2)    Jesus will return after the millennium.

(3)    The binding of Satan refers to the gospel’s worldwide advance.

(4)    The thousand years is a figurative number indicating a long period of time.

(5)    The first resurrection refers to:

a. The intermediate (after-death) state of believers.

b. The spiritual coming to life (i.e. regeneration) of those who believe the gospel.

(6)    The second death refers to hell.

(7)    The rapture is a public event that takes place at Christ’s second coming when believers who are still living are “caught up” and transformed.

(8)    Both evil and good will increase side-by-side until Christ returns.



(1)    The millennium is future – a period of worldwide Christian triumph when the Kingdom of God is dramatically unveiled in history.

(2)    Jesus will return after the millennium.

(3)    The binding of Satan refers both to the gospel’s worldwide advance as well as a sever limiting of his power – both spiritually and physically.

(4)    The thousand years is a figurative number indicating a long period of time.

(5)    (See Amillennialism)

(6)    The second death refers to hell.

(7)    (See Amillennialism)

(8)    Good will triumph over evil as the millennium approaches and continues.


Premillennialism (Historic or Classic)

(1)    The millennium is future.

(2)    Jesus will return before the millennium.

(3)    The binding of Satan refers to his power and presence being completely removed from the earth.

(4)    The thousand years may be literal or it may be figurative.

(5)    The first resurrection refers to the physical resurrection of all the “dead in Christ” when he returns.

(6)    The second death refers to hell.

(7)    The rapture is a public event that takes place at Christ’s second coming when believers who are still living are “caught up” and transformed.

(8)    Evil will increase until Christ returns.


Premillennialism (Dispensational)

(1)    The millennium is a future time when God will literally fulfill his OT promises to national Israel.

(2)    Jesus will return once at the rapture (secretly) and again before the millennium (publically).

(3)    The binding of Satan refers to his power and presence being completely removed from the earth.

(4)    The thousand years is a literal period of time.

(5)    The first resurrection refers to the physical resurrection of Christian martyrs and OT saints.

(6)    The second death refers to hell.

(7)    The rapture is a secret event that takes place at Christ’s first second coming when the church is silently removed from the earth:

a. Pre-tribulation

b. Mid-tribulation

c.  Post-tribulation

(8)    Evil will increase until the great tribulation begins – a seven year period of satanic dominance.


Key Passages

The Seventy Weeks of Daniel – Daniel 9:24-27

The Olivet Discourse – Matthew 24, Mark 13, Luke 20

The Coming of Christ – John 5:19-29, Acts 24:15, 1 Thess. 4:13-5:11 and 2 Thess. 1:5-10


The Day of the Lord


The Day of the Lord and the Lord’s Day.

These days are not the same.


What are the differences?

The Lords Day is the day that believers gather to worship God. It is the day that Christ rose from the dead. It is the day the Lord set apart when He rested from His creation. This is a glorious day that should be filled with celebration and joy. It should be filled with thoughts of God and the things he has created us for, namely to ‘glorify Him and to enjoy Him forever’.


The Day of the Lord is much different;


Lets look at a few scriptures on the subject:

Is. 2:12 For the day of the LORD of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud and lofty, and upon every one that is lifted up; and he shall be brought low:


Is. 13:6   Howl ye; for the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as a destruction from the Almighty.


Is. 13:9 Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, cruel both with wrath and fierce anger, to lay the land desolate: and he shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it.


Jer. 46:10 For this is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, a day of vengeance, that he may avenge him of his adversaries: and the sword shall devour, and it shall be satiate and made drunk with their blood: for the Lord GOD of hosts hath a sacrifice in the north country by the river Euphrates.


Ezek. 13:5 Ye have not gone up into the gaps, neither made up the hedge for the house of Israel to stand in the battle in the day of the LORD.


Ezek. 30:3 For the day is near, even the day of the LORD is near, a cloudy day; it shall be the time of the heathen.


Joel 1:15 Alas for the day! for the day of the LORD is at hand, and as a destruction from the Almighty shall it come.


Joel 2:1   Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain: let all the inhabitants of the land tremble: for the day of the LORD cometh, for it is nigh at hand;


Joel 2:11 And the LORD shall utter his voice before his army: for his camp is very great: for he is strong that executeth his word: for the day of the LORD is great and very terrible; and who can abide it?


Joel 2:31 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come.


Joel 3:14 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.


Amos 5:18 Woe unto you that desire the day of the LORD! to what end is it for you? the day of the LORD is darkness, and not light.


Amos 5:20 Shall not the day of the LORD be darkness, and not light? even very dark, and no brightness in it?


Obad. 15 For the day of the LORD is near upon all the heathen: as thou hast done, it shall be done unto thee: thy reward shall return upon thine own head.


Zeph. 1:7   Hold thy peace at the presence of the Lord GOD: for the day of the LORD is at hand: for the LORD hath prepared a sacrifice, he hath bid his guests.


Zeph. 1:14   The great day of the LORD is near, it is near, and hasteth greatly, even the voice of the day of the LORD: the mighty man shall cry there bitterly.


Zech. 14:1   Behold, the day of the LORD cometh, and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee.


Mal. 4:5 Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD:


Surely these passages describe an event that is terrible. It is called dreadful. Men will weep bitterly; there will be darkness. The moon will be red like blood. In the book of revelation it says:

Rev. 15 And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; 6:16 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:

Men will cry out for even the mountains to fall on them to hide them from Him who is coming in the flames.

For believers, we will meet the Lord in the air. It will be another day filled with joy for the elect as our savior returns on a white horse for us. However, it will be a day of immeasurable terror for the unbelievers, more so  than the flood of Noah. In those days, God destroyed the world with water-everyone perished except Noah and his family. On the Day of the Lord, Christ will come back in fire.

Matt 24:36 But of that day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only. 37 But as the days of Noe were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. 38 For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, 39 And knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be. 40 Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left. 41 Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left. 42 Watch therefore: for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come. 43 But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up. 44 Therefore be ye also ready: for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of man cometh. 45 Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season? 46 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing. 47 Verily I say unto you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods. 48 But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; 49 And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken; 50 The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of, 51 And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.


Sproul writes:

“The Church needs teaching on this subject, not just because neglect produces a dangerous vacuum, but also because eschatology is the capstone and crown of systematic theology. As Kuyper said, it sheds light on every other doctrine and answers questions that every other theological subject raises.”

Louis Berkhof writes:
“In theology [proper] it is the question, how God is finally perfectly glorified in the work of His hands, and how the counsel of God is fully realized; in anthropology, the question, how the disrupting influence of sin is completely overcome; in Christology, the question, how the work of Christ is crowned with perfect victory; in soteriology, the question, how the work of the Holy Spirit at last issues in the complete redemption and glorification of the people of God; and in ecclesiology, the question of the final apotheosis of the church (Systematic Theology, 665).”

So much more can be said on the subject of eschatology; this short paper barely scratches the surface. The Book of Revelation is the main reference point for believers. It is akin to a Van Gogh painting. Most people struggle with this book; it is chock full of imagery, hyperbole and antrhopromorphism. Many are frustrated when reading this book due to the fact that they are unable to distinguish between these theological differences. It is not an easy read even for the most astute. I will just leave you with a passage from the book of Revelation that says:

Rev 3:1 Rev. 1:3   Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein: for the time is at hand.

I pray this paper blesses you.